A fire door is a specialized structural element used in buildings and structures for various purposes. Its main purpose is to delay the spread of combustion products and fire for a certain period of time, sufficient for an evacuation. Strict requirements are imposed on fire doors, and their characteristics are regulated.
Fire resistance index
One of the key characteristics of fire doors is considered to be the degree of fire resistance. Several classes of fire resistance have been established by state standards. They are marked as EI-15, 30, 45, etc.For that the installation company needs the certification in order to sell these fire-rated doors.
Each number and letter in the marking has its own meaning:
- E – Indicates that the door leaf in a fire is capable of performing the functions assigned to it.
- I – the time period for which the product will lose its thermal insulation properties.
- The numbers indicate the minutes during which the doors will retain their properties, are indicated at 15-minute intervals.
- For example, EI-15 doors are guaranteed not to let fire and combustion products into the room for 15 minutes.
In total, 3 degrees of fire resistance are distinguished. The first limit assumes 90 minutes of fire resistance, the second – 60 minutes, the third – 30. Doors of the second degree of fire resistance are considered the most versatile and popular. It is possible to get acquainted in detail with the characteristics of fire doors of each category if you visit the official website of NPO Pulse , one of the manufacturers of the door panels in question.
Structural differences between fire doors
Fire doors in operation
Door leaves are sliding, 2-lane and single-lane, solid, folding, different-sided, and also equal-sided. Glazing is allowed in the design.
Fire doors material
There are 4 basic materials from which manufacturers make fire-resistant doors:
Wooden panels differ in more powerful panels and frame from standard canvases. They are characterized by a special seal that can contain the spread of fire and smoke. If the web temperature rises significantly, then the seal begins to foam and fill the inner plane.
Steel structures require a double rebate and multiple layers of gasket that is resistant to direct fire. Mineral wool slabs are usually used as insulators.The design of aluminum canvases is in many ways similar to steel – metal sheathing and frame, insulating material and heat-insulating gaskets.
Glass doors are made of fire resistant glass. The fire resistance limit of the material must comply with the requirements for fire-resistant doors.
- wood fire door
- steel fire door
- aluminum fire door
- glass fire door
Recommendations for choosing fire doors
When choosing doors, first of all, the fire resistance class is taken into account. The requirements for this parameter depend on the type of room. Of course, the higher the fire resistance index, the better, but the price of such doors will also be higher.
Fire doors do not have an external decorative finish. Exceptions are glass inserts, powder coating, nitro enamel painting. Any decor can increase the cost of the structure, as well as negatively affect the fire resistance. The fittings must be made of fire-resistant plastic or refractory metals.
It is recommended to buy fireproof doors only from well-known manufacturers whose products comply with state standards. The presence of quality certificates and documents with test results is considered mandatory. Saving on quality products is fraught with dire consequences.
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